sport, racism in

sport, racism in
   Sport in Britain has long suffered from racism, and despite progress over the last few decades, it remains tainted by the problem in the 1990s. The most obvious racism has appeared in football, partly as it is the sport most covered by the media. Apart from the casual abuse, football has also been targeted by hard-core fascist groups, such as the National Front and Combat-18. The history of football in the 1970s and 1980s is littered with spectator abuse of players and other fans in this fashion. Players were abused on the pitch by opponents and even by team-mates.
   Black supporters were obviously put off attending football matches by such behaviour, but in the 1990s research has shifted from the Afro-Caribbean population to Asian fans, who are clearly interested in football but very rarely attend matches. The Criminal Justice Act of 1996 (though poorly framed) offers some protection from racist chanting, and anti-racist campaigns by sports fans are spreading rapidly across football.
   Other sports have suffered too; rugby league and cricket have seen spectator abuse of minority players and confrontations between sets of fans. Test matches between England, India and Pakistan have seen fans squaring up to each other for this reason. Even in the mid-1990s it remained possible for a journalist to publicly question black players’ loyalty to the England test cricket team, on the basis of their background.
   Racism also operates institutionally: black people might successfully perform in most sports, but they have yet to take the next step and become administrators and managers. There have been very few black Football League managers, and virtually no black administrators; some club chairmen still hold highly suspect views. For British Asians there is the bigger problem of becoming competitors at all. Too many coaches in a number of sports hold racist assumptions: research by Jas Bains in 1996 found that many football officials thought Asian players’ religion and language would cause problems, and many felt the Asian physique was not strong enough for the game. The first Asian rugby league player to play for England, Ikram Butt, noted how such assumptions were simply wrong and how they made later success all the sweeter.
   The situation is improving, and when a headbandaged Paul Ince defiantly led the English football team to victory in the run-up to the 1998 World Cup finals, he became an icon of Englishness. However, much work remains to be done and many people are still unconvinced that a minority background is no impediment to a successful sporting career.
   Further reading
    Jamie, G. (1991) Sport, Racism and Ethnicity, London: Falmer.
   SAM JOHNSTONE

Encyclopedia of contemporary British culture . . 2014.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • sport on television —    From slow beginnings in the 1950s, sport has become crucial to all television stations, costs millions of pounds and can attract huge ratings. The 1950s saw the BBC establish a format for sport that has endured. Wednesday evenings, Saturday… …   Encyclopedia of contemporary British culture

  • Racism in association football — is still a major problem in some parts of the world, particularly in Italy, Spain, and Eastern Europe, although it is a world wide concern. Racism isn t directed at players simply because of their skin colour; players are also targeted because of …   Wikipedia

  • Racism in sport — is a problem which is manifest around the world. It has led to a wide range of controversial incidents which have been reported in the media.There have been many efforts to eradicate racism from sport, including Football Against Racism in Europe …   Wikipedia

  • Racism Breaks the Game — ( Rasismul strică fotbalul in Romanian, O Rasismo Rimol o Khel in Romani) was a three day campaign in Romania designed to combat racism in association football, particularly against the Romani minority, as well as to stimulate social dialogue and …   Wikipedia

  • women in sport —    Historically, women have struggled to be allowed to compete, attract television and sponsor interest, and bring their sporting excellence to public attention. But in the 1990s, the picture changed and, crucially, television and sponsors became …   Encyclopedia of contemporary British culture

  • Show Racism The Red Card — is an organisation agaisnt Racism in football. The red card is a reference to being sent off in a football game, like they want to send racism out of footballee also*Racism in footballShow Racism the Red Card is harnessing the profile of sport to …   Wikipedia

  • International League against Racism and Anti-Semitism — The International League against Racism and Anti Semitism ndash; or Ligue Internationale Contre le Racisme et l Antisémitisme (LICRA) in French mdash; was established in 1926, and is opposed to intolerance, xenophobia and exclusion. HistoryThe… …   Wikipedia

  • Football Against Racism in Europe — (FARE) is a network set up to counter racism and xenophobia [http://www.farenet.org/page.asp?intPageID=15] in European Football. The network was set up in Vienna, Austria, on February 1999 after a meeting of football supporters groups, football… …   Wikipedia

  • European Gay & Lesbian Sport Federation — Die European Gay Lesbian Sport Federation (EGLSF) wurde 1989 in Den Haag, Niederlande, gegründet. Heute hat sie ihren Sitz in Amsterdam. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Ziele 2 Mitglieder der EGLSF 3 Die EuroGames 4 Interessenvertretung/Lobbyarbeit 5… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • European Gay and Lesbian Sport Federation — Die European Gay Lesbian Sport Federation (EGLSF) wurde 1989 in Den Haag, Niederlande, gegründet. Heute hat sie ihren Sitz in Amsterdam. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Ziele 2 Mitglieder der EGLSF 3 Die EuroGames 4 Interessenvertretung/Lobbyarbeit 5… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”